Watching What We Cannot See
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a nuclear industrial complex owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). It covers 310 square miles and is bordered on the southwest by the Savannah River, which separates South Carolina from Georgia.
During the 1950s, SRS started producing tritium and plutonium-239, materials used in nuclear weapons. Five reactors and support facilities were built to produce these nuclear materials, with irradiated materials being moved from the reactors to chemical separation plants where they were processed to separate useful products from waste. After refinement, resulting nuclear materials were shipped to other DOE sites for final application. The site produced about 36 metric tons of plutonium from 1953 to 1988.
When the Cold War ended, the United States no longer needed vast quantities of nuclear materials and a new direction took shape: cleaning up the nation’s Cold War legacy and downsizing its nuclear complexes. Nuclear sites across the country were closed down, and their materials sent to the South Carolina site for safekeeping.
Supporting these safekeeping measures are the thrust of one of N.C. A&T’s research efforts. Three A&T scientists are using unmanned autonomous robots and vehicles to assist Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), the present-day site manager, in its storage, handling and maintenance of the radioactive materials in the facilities.
Drs. Sun Yi, Younho Seong and Sameer Hamoush represent three different departments within N.C. A&T’s College of Engineering, and 2019 marks their third year of research in support of SRNS. Their project, called Tele-Operated Robots with Remote Sensors and Automated Detection Aids for Decision Making in Highly Safety-Critical Concrete Structures, allows SRNS to see and understand what is happening in the underground tunnels where the radioactive waste is stored. By using autonomous robots and vehicles, in this case ground-based rovers and robot arms, A&T scientists are able to be present in areas otherwise off-limits to human traffic.
The SRNS storage tunnels are made of concrete, which can deteriorate over time. It is important for the SRNS team to detect weaknesses in their storage structures so they can take action to correct vulnerabilities long before they become a threat to the environment.
At the program’s inception in 2016, the N.C. A&T research team used nondestructive sensors with cameras mounted on a ground-based rover to send information back to the team above ground. Today’s technology allows for far more precise and useful data gathering. “What started out as photo taking in 2016 has progressed to a rather complex mapping exercise,” explains Dr. Sun Yi, one of the project’s Principle Investigators. “By using today’s LiDAR technology we are able to examine the man-made tunnel environments with stunning accuracy and precision.”
LiDAR, Light Detection And Ranging, is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure ranges within the SRS tunnels providing three-dimensional information about the shape of the tunnel and its surface characteristics. It also allows the A&T team to create a complete coordinate map of the underground facility using GPS technology; at the conclusion of this year’s project, the team will have a complete map with SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) coordinates of every position in the storage tunnel. “When we detect a vulnerability in the structure going forward, it will be mapped with exact coordinates, allowing us greater insight as we find, monitor and eventually address flaws in the structure.”
Therein lies the future of N.C. A&T’s relationship with SRNS. With the photographic capabilities proven and the robust mapping exercise almost complete, the next frontiers of this research project are even more exciting. New equipment will provide Drs. Yi, Seong and Hamoush the opportunity to perform non-destructive testing of the concrete tunnel surfaces. By using a sophisticated 3-D camera mounted on a powerful, flexible arm, the next generation rovers will be able to not only detect visible surface cracks, but scan inside the concrete structures for hidden vulnerabilities invisible to the human eye.
“In the future, we hope to move beyond the non-destructive testing phase, and assist Savannah River Nuclear Solutions with remediation,” said Yi. “We believe the autonomous vehicle technologies we use now to photograph, map and see inside structures will expand to facilitate the repairs we will need to accomplish in the coming years.”
DORED Announces $5.3 Million Contract with United States Department of Defense
The Division of Research and Economic Development at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University announces it has secured a federal contract through the Test Resource Management Center within the U.S. Department of Defense. The four-year contract, with a value of $5.3 million is led by N.C. A&T commenced in January 2017 The goal is to create a data-driven intelligent prediction tool for the testing and evaluation (T&E) of unmanned autonomous systems (UAS), such as drones, rovers or other air and ground vehicles.
UAS technology is of increasing interest throughout scientific and even consumer circles, especially as it relates to military and transportation applications. The autonomy capabilities augmented with unmanned vehicles enables these systems to observe, record, make decisions and even take action in locations where physical human presence is either impossible or undesirable. Because UAS are separate entities from the people who operate them, their internal states and associated data may not be readily available to an operator. Better tools are needed to offer insight into UAS decision-making processes, giving operators the ability to (1) monitor and understand the UAS processes without interfering with them, (2) understand the behavioral state of a UAS during its mission, (3) understand the UAS’ perception capabilities, and (4) visualize its autonomy processes in real time through a user-friendly interface. The more aligned an operator is with a UAS’ state, the more effective an unmanned system can be. Achieving this goal has been the purpose of N.C. A&T’s research in this field, and the foundation for the deliverables which will result from this Department of Defense contract.
The contract will be completed in three phases; the development of T&E algorithms, simulation and soft-testing, and finally the implementation of the algorithms on actual Department of Defense platforms. For phases one and two, the Georgia Tech Research Institute will provide a team of unmanned vehicles for the project, with the ability to collaboratively search for ground targets using onboard vision processing.
About the ACIT institute
The Autonomous Control and Information Technology (ACIT) institute at N.C. A&T fosters interdisciplinary work to carry out research and education in autonomous control engineering and its applications. The technology transfer role of the institute includes workshops, seminars and demonstration projects designed to move new technologies from the laboratory to industry, and to educate technical personnel and managers on the opportunities and uses of the technologies. One of the Center’s under this institute is the Testing, Evaluation, and Control of Heterogeneous Large-scale Systems of Autonomous Vehicles (TECHLAV) Center, which is funded by the DoD Air Force Research Laboratory as a Center of Excellence in Autonomy. The TECHLAV Center comprises a strong multi-disciplinary team and synergizes expertise in Control, Communication, and Human Cognition from N.C. A&T and its collaborator University of Texas at San Antonio. TECHLAV addresses fundamental problems in modeling, analysis, control, coordination, test and evaluation of autonomous systems, serves as a national resource in education and research in Autonomy, provides outreach services in autonomy related area, fosters linkages among national institutions of higher education, government agencies and private companies and commercializes TECHLAV technologies for the benefit of the national economy.
About the Division of Research and Economic Development (DORED)
DORED manages N.C. A&T’s research enterprise. DORED provides services to faculty, postdoctoral research associates, student researchers, current and potential research partners, funding agencies, and economic development agencies. DORED serves the university and its research efforts through research services and project management, compliance and ethics guidelines, aiding in the submission of research proposals, handling financial and regulatory administration of all contracts and grants awarded to N.C. A&T, management of the university’s technology transfer and commercialization programs and promoting opportunities for undergraduates to conduct research.
Acknowledgements: This project is funded by the Test Resource Management Center (TRMC) and Test Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program and/or the U.S. Army Contracting Command Orlando (ACC-ORL-OPB) under contract W900KK-17-C-0002. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Test Resource Management Center (TRMC) and Test Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program and/or the U. S. Army Contracting Command-Orlando (ACC-ORL-OPB)